Unlike Huntington disease, in which the number of nucleotide repeats in a single gene determine outcome, bipolar disorder appears to be influenced by several hundred genes: 266 in a recent meta-analysis. Some genes are more central to the development of bipolar disorder than others, suggesting that there are several main pathways to the development of this illness, not 266 different routes. For example, one of the most consistently identified genes…codes for a calcium channel subunit that affects amygdala processing of emotional events, which itself has been shown to be one of the central differences in brain function in bipolar disorder. Continue reading
With upscale artisanal coffee brewers dotting city streets across the country, America might fancy itself a nation of high-end coffee drinkers.
But just the opposite is true: People in this country, on the whole, are actually drinking worse coffee today than they have in the past. And the reason appears to be that they value cheapness over quality — and convenience over everything. “A lot of people in America would take a sip of single origin high-end coffee and not appreciate the taste,” Continue reading