Psychopathy – Remind You of Someone You Know!?

Standard

 

“..psychopathy is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by structural abnormalities from a young age…the criterion for pathological personality traits refers to antagonism as characterized by:

 

  • manipulativeness
  • callousness,
  • deceitfulness
  • hostility

 

“VIOLENCE IS A GLOBAL PUBlic health problem. Most violent crimes are committed by a small group of lifecourse- persistent male offenders, who meet diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder as children and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) as adults. Behavioral genetic research suggests that such stable antisocial behavior is moderately heritable. Significant clinical heterogeneity exists within this life-course-persistent offending group. Most are characterized by:

  • emotional lability
  • impulsivity
  • high levels of mood and anxiety disorders
  • reactive aggression.

However, a minority are characterized by deficient affective experience, typified by a lack of empathy and remorse, as well as persistent reactive and instrumental aggression. This subgroup meets diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder with callous-unemotional traits in childhood and for the syndrome of psychopathy…

“..psychopathy is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by structural abnormalities from a young age…the criterion for pathological personality traits refers to antagonism as characterized by:

  • manipulativeness
  • callousness,
  • deceitfulness
  • hostility

..are highly heritable, while developmental studies support the stability of childhood psychopathic traits into adolescence and early adulthood…

While the 2 former traits are core characteristics of psychopathy, hostility, defined as persistent or frequent angry feelings, or irritability in response to minor slights or insults is characteristic of the larger group of persistently violent men who repeatedly engage in reactive aggression and show heightened threat responses…

Given the differences in patterns of antisocial and aggressive behavior, emotion processing, personality traits, and criminal offending between men with antisocial personality disorder with without psychopathy (ASPD−P) and men with psychopathology, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the neurobiological mechanisms that initiate and maintain their aggressive behaviors differ.

Reactive violence is purportedly underscored by dysfunction within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC).  This region regulates emotional reactivity to perceived environmental threats or frustration in the absence of an expected reward and modulates behavior accordingly.  By contrast, instrumental violence is hypothesized to be associated with abnormalities within both the vmPFC and amygdala. Deficits in aversive conditioning, reinforcement learning, and recognition of fearful facial expressions, which characterize children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits and adult psychopaths are associated with dysfunction in both regions.”

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