Participants with tattoos and/or body piercings were more likely to have engaged in risk-taking behaviors and at greater degrees of involvement than those without either.
These included disordered eating behavior, gateway drug use, hard drug use, sexual activity, and suicide. Violence was associated with males having tattoos and with females having body piercings. Gateway drug use was associated with younger age of both tattooing and body piercing. Hard drug use was associated with number of body piercings. Suicide was associated with females having tattoos and younger age of both tattooing and body piercing. Tattoos and body piercings were found to be more common in females than males.
Oh oh, there is a “…correlation between body modifications and different forms and/or traits of psychological and personality disorders (i.e. borderline personality disorder)…
Different studies, over the last ten years, highlighted that tattoos and piercings may indicate an internal malaise and may be a possible psychopathological index of diseases including self damaging behaviors:
- abuse of marijuana and alcohol and by excessive consumption of drugs, antidepressants and sedatives
risk behaviors, especially among teenage girls
higher frequency of socio-economic disadvantage, parents lower educational level, higher use of substances, more violent behaviors in tattooed subjects
more likely to abuse alcohol, smoke, drugs and to drive under alcohol influence
a greater tendency to adopt risk behaviors
deviant behaviors…less satisfied with body image women were more predisposed to abuse harmful substances (smoking, cannabis), to unprotected sex, suicide attempts and had mostly the temperamental trait “sensation seeking”
higher frequency of harmful behavior and, especially in males, a higher percentage of suicide attemptsself-harm behaviors (e.g. widespread use of tobacco, alcohol and low calorie diets in the female gender
high levels of dissociation, borderline personality disorder, substance abuse disorders, postraumatic stress disorders.
link between body modifications and harmful behaviors. In borderline personality disorders, one of the nine diagnostic criteria is the “self mutilating behaviors”…Self-injurious behaviors were linked with the individual history of childhood maltreatment and alexithymia mediates this relationship
tattooed samples abused alcohol, 92% often drived recklessly, 90% made use of drugs, 45% had sexual interactions different from the usual while 35% of subjects had occasional reports; 25% and 26% of the subjects, respectively, prevented the healing of their wounds and neglected therapeutic prescriptions, while 33% showed self-injurious practices. In the group of people with piercings (n=36) 70% made use of substances and 95% of alcohol, 53% drive recklessly. The percentage highlighted concerning self-injurious practices, 48% and 49% respectively, prevented the healing of their wounds and neglected therapeutic prescriptions and 45% have abused drugs.
The study effectively highlighted the positive correlation between patients with piercings and tattoos and indices of psychiatric disorders….individuals with bodily changes express more often self-injurious behavior and show a higher incidence of self-aggressive behavior, of eating disorders and of alcoholism.
Moreover, in subjects with piercing there is a greater presence and severity of self-injurious behaviors than in subjects without body modification and in subjects with tattoos….there is a more controversial relationship with their bodily experience and a higher sensation seeking…individuals with body modifications have a negative quality of life, reduced social interaction and a common attitude to research new sensations (e.g. substance abuse).
…the group with piercings showed more marked distress conditions highlighting a weak psychological well-being…people with tattoos and piercings showed noticeable distress conditions…is linked to emotional distress and to the need of using the body to express concern, discomfort, anger, loneliness.
… a significant trend of personality disorders in subjects with piercings. Subjects with piercings or tattoos showed a high frequency of deviant behaviors such as drug use, alcohol abuse, reckless driving, preventing wounds from healing, health deterioration, unusual sexual practices and desire to self harm. The study indicated that people with tattoos are characterized by the use of substances, alcohol abuse, reckless driving, unusual sex while people with piercings seem to be more engaged in preventing wounds from healing, worse health conditions, drugs abuse and self-harm.
… patients with multiple bodily changes had a lower level of health… a significant trend towards dissociative disorders in the patients with piercings and tattoos