Brain Processes Started a Long Time Ago and We’re Very Simple


Slimed! Scientists Discover that Evolution of Memory Started by Feedback from Chemicals




Although They only have a single cell and no brain, slime molds, Physarum polycephalum, remember where they’ve been by constructing a form of spatial memory by avoiding areas it has previously explored, according to researchers at University of Sydney and Université Toulouse III. The finding is strong support for the theory that the first step toward the evolution of memory was the use of feedback from chemicals. Continue reading


Animal Intelligence


Quote: Jerison on animal intelligence

Thu, 2012-10-04 14:20 — John Hawks

Harry Jerison, famous researcher of brain sizes across classes and orders of animals, commented on the relation of “encephalization” to the intelligence of animals by considering the problem one of multidimensional optimization [1]:

The insight is that comparable amounts of intelligence in different species may not (and normally would not) reflect comparable kinds of intelligence. Many and various intelligences (in the plural) must have evolved in conjunction with evolving environments and with brains and behaviours adapted to those environments.

That intelligences would be of various kinds is almost an axiom of evolutionary analysis, since adaptations evolve in the contexts of the environments in which they are effective, and species never occupy identical niches. The evolution of neural and sensorimotor adaptations provides many fine examples of uniqueness of species. The visual systems of deer and wolf, for example, may be similar in many ways, for example, in the structure of the sensory cells, neural networks of the retina, and the central nervous pathways and centres. Yet these systems are significantly different: the deer, like most ungulate ‘prey’ species, probably has panoramic vision whereas the wolf’s visual field is more nearly like the primate’s proscenium stage. The visual system encumbers significant amounts of nervous tissues and, thus, contributes to brain size and measured encephalization. Neural machinery associated with the sensory systems and motor control systems as a group determines a large fraction of the mass of the whole brain. Equality of encephalization of deer and wolf, thus, implies that the neural control systems for the specialized adaptations, though different in the two species, sum to approximately equal amounts relative to body size.


  1. Jerison HJ. Animal intelligence as encephalization. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1985;308(1135):21-35.

“technological change should not be conceived of as the consequence of one-off innovations, but rather as a long-term process that involves not only technological improvements but also the adaptation and change of economic habits and negotiations over cultural norms. “


Looks Like Our Brains Make Up Time as Well


Scientists suggest spacetime has no time dimension

Scientists propose that clocks measure the numerical order of material change in space, where space is a fundamental entity; time itself is not a fundamental physical entity.
( — The concept of time as a way to measure the duration of events is not only deeply intuitive, it also plays an important role in our mathematical descriptions of physical systems. For instance, we define an object’s speed as its displacement per a given time. But some researchers theorize that this Newtonian idea of time as an absolute quantity that flows on its own, along with the idea that time is the fourth dimension of spacetime, are incorrect. They propose to replace these concepts of time with a view that corresponds more accurately to the physical world: time as a measure of the numerical order of change. Continue reading

How Medical Knowledge is Put Into Action – The Future of Brain Research and Marketing?


A best guess is that neuro-marketing and neuro-business will follow research, testing and practical applications like other medical knowledge, a brief description is below.  The application of brain research to business and marketing will just be another branch of medicine, physiology and psychiatry.

“Biomedical inquiry as it is practiced in America today is an amalgam of three different kinds of research: basic research, population research, and clinical research.

While all three are of critical importance, it is clinical research that underpins our national medical efforts. Only clinical researchers are able to apply the knowledge of the cell and organ systems developed by basic researchers, and the population data gathered by epidemiologists and biostatisticians, to patients, making this knowledge and data relevant to medical practice by “translating” it into novel treatments.”

What Will Real Neuro-Business and Neuro-Marketing Look Like?


We can speculate on what a real neuro-marketing and neuro-business industry will look like — probably like other medical businesses.  Our comments are in [brackets]

What Are Possible Obstacles to Applying Brain Research to Business and Marketing?
We can expect that the translation of lab-bench-research findings on brain > behavior will face the same problems as other medical research areas. Marketing and business is, after all, just another branch of psychiatry and brain physiology.

So we don’t have to go into all this without templates or models for coping and application. Medical research on advanced topics and application to clinical practice and treatments already exist and have been studied, modeled and put into clinical use.

Marketing and business application of brain research is just another kind of “clinical” application.

Here, for example, is a doctor’s discussion of some of these obstacles with the latest genetic findings: Continue reading

“All Things are Number(s)” Business and Marketing = Maths


Bit abstract but science is all the same.  Business and marketing is going to have to come down to math.  Later maybe than sooner but eventually.  Might as well start moving in that direction now.

Here a Nobel physicist explains why purely “conceptual” work with math has resulted in the accurate understanding of pretty much all of reality and astrophysics.  There is still more work to do to explain the  infinitesimally small properties of processes even smaller than the elementary constituents of atoms, but work proceeds  apace.

This is the model for our understanding of all things empirical including marketing and the brain.  Maybe centuries away but the maths of physics are pretty much the only language and knowledge model that has proven to work and predict accurately.

Brain processes are complex, sure, but a lot bigger and more classically mechanical than extreme physics so the problems will be solved.

Take Away

  • The big difference between nature’s instruments and those of human construction is that her designs depend not on craftsmanship refined by experience, but rather on the ruthlessly precise application of simple rules.
  • The stable states of atoms correspond to pure tones. Continue reading